Houston Frat Hazing Lawyer

Houston Frat Hazing Lawyer

Seeking a Free Consultation with one of Texas’ Houston Fraternity Hazing Lawyers? Call the Houston Frat Hazing Lawyer Reshard Alexander today at 713.766.3322.

Hazing (American English), initiation ceremonies[1] refers to any activity expected of someone in joining or participating in a group that humiliates, degrades, abuses, or endangers them regardless of a person’s willingness to participate.[2]

Hazing is seen in many different types of social groups, including gangssports teams, schools, universitiesmilitary units, and fraternities and sororities. The initiation rites can range from relatively benign pranks to protracted patterns of behavior that rise to the level of abuse or criminal misconduct.[3] Hazing is often prohibited by law or prohibited by institutions such as colleges and universities because it may include either physical or psychological abuse, such as humiliationnudity, or sexual abuse.

Seeking a Free Consultation with one of Texas’ Houston Frat Hazing Lawyers? Call the Fraternity Hazing Lawyer Reshard Alexander today at 713.766.3322.

In some languages, terms with a religious theme or etymology are preferred, such as baptism or purgatory (e.g. baptême in Belgian French, doop in Belgian Dutch, chrzciny in Polish) or variations on a theme of naïveté and the rite of passage such as a derivation from a term for freshman, for example bizutage in European French, ontgroening (“de-green[horn]ing“) in Dutch and Afrikaans (South Africa and Namibia), novatada in Spanish, from novato, meaning newcomer or rookie or a combination of both, such as in the Finnish mopokaste (literally “moped baptism”, “moped” being the nickname for newcomers, stemming from the concept that they would be forced to drive a child’s bicycle or tricycle). In Latvian, the word iesvētības, which literally means “in-blessings”, is used, also standing for religious rites of passage, especially confirmation. In Swedish, the term used is nollning, literally “zeroing” (from the fact that when a student starts their first year, they are a “one’er”, but before passing the rite they are a “zero”). In Portugal, the term praxe, which literally means “practice” or “habit”, is used for initiation. In Brazil, it is called trote and is usually practiced at universities by older students (doutores and veteranos) against newcomers (calouros) in the first week of their first semester. In the Italian military, instead, the term used was nonnismo, from nonno (literally “grandfather”), a jargon term used for the soldiers who had already served for most of their draft period. A similar equivalent term exists in the Russian military, where a hazing phenomenon known as дедовщи́на dedovshchina exists, meaning roughly “grandfather” or the slang term “gramps” (referring to the senior corps of soldiers in their final year of conscription). At education establishments in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, this practice involves existing students baiting new students and is called ragging. In Polish schools, hazing is known as kocenie (literally catting, coming from the noun kot cat). It often features cat-related activities, like competitive milk drinking. Other popular tasks include measuring a long distance (i.e. hallways) with matches. Less loaded names for hazing are otrzęsiny (related to the verb otrząsać get over, rally but also shake off/out—as being a novice is a negative state that should be quit) and chrzciny mentioned above.

Often most or all of the endurance or the more serious ordeal is concentrated in a single session, which may be called hell night, or prolonged to a hell week, sometimes again at the pledge’s birthday (e.g. by birthday spanking), but some traditions keep terrorizing pledges over a long period, resembling fagging.

Seeking a Free Consultation with one of Texas’ Houston Frat Hazing Lawyers? Call the Fraternity Hazing Lawyer Reshard Alexander today at 713.766.3322.

Hazing activities can involve forms of ridicule and humiliation within the group or in public, while other hazing incidents are akin to pranks. A snipe hunt is such a prank, when a newcomer or credulous person is given an impossible task. Examples of snipe hunts include being sent to find a tin of Tartan paint, or a “dough repair kit” in a bakery,[4] while in the early 1900s rookies in the Canadian military were ordered to obtain a “brass magnet” when brass is not magnetic.[5]

Spanking is done mainly in the form of paddling among fraternities, sororities and similar clubs, sometimes over a lap, a knee, furniture or a pillow, but mostly with the victim “assuming the position”, i.e., simply bending over forward. A variation of this (also as punishment) is trading licks. This practice is also used in the military. Alternative modes (including bare-buttock paddling, strapping and switching, as well as mock forms of antiquated forms of physical punishments such as stocks, walking the plank and running the gauntlet) have been reported.

The hazee may be humiliated by being hosed or by sprinkler or buckets; covered with dirt or with (sometimes rotten) food, even urinated upon. Olive or baby oil may be used to “show off” the bare skin, for wrestling or just slipperiness, e.g., to complicate pole climbing. Cleaning may be limited to a dive into water, hosing down or even paddling the worst off. They may have to do tedious cleaning including swabbing the decks or cleaning the toilets with a toothbrush. In fraternities, pledges often must clean up a mess intentionally made by brothers which can include fecal matter, urine, and dead animals.[6]

Servitude such as waiting on others (as at fraternity parties) or various other forms of housework, often with tests of obedience. In some cases, the hazee may be made to eat raw eggs, peppers, hot sauce, or drink too much alcohol. Some hazing even includes eating or drinking vile things such as bugs or rotting food.

The hazee may have to wear an imposed piece of clothing, outfit, item or something else worn by the victim in a way that would bring negative attention to the wearer. Examples include a uniform (e.g. toga); a leash or collar (also associated with bondage); infantile and other humiliating dress and attire.[7][8]

Markings may also be made on clothing or bare skin. They are painted, written, tattooed or shaved on, sometimes collectively forming a message (one letter, syllable or word on each pledge) or may receive tarring and feathering (or rather a mock version using some glue) or branding.

Submission to senior members of the group is common. Abject “etiquette” required of pledges or subordinates may include prostration, kneeling, literal groveling, and kissing body parts.[9]

Other physical feats may be required, such as calisthenics and other physical tests, such as mud wrestling, forming a human pyramid, or climbing a greased pole. Exposure to the elements may be required, such as swimming or diving in cold water or snow.

Orientation tests may be held, such as abandoning pledges without transport. Dares include jumping from some height, stealing from police or rival teams and obedience. Blood pinning among military aviators (and many other elite groups) to celebrate becoming new pilots is done by piercing their chests with the sharp pins of aviator wings.

On a pilot’s first solo flight, they are often drenched with water, as well as having the back of their shirt cut off to celebrate the achievement. Cutting off the back of the shirt originates from the days of tandem trainers, where the instructor sat behind the student and tugged on the back of their shirt in order to get their attention. Cutting off the back of the shirt symbolizes that the instructor has no need to do that anymore.[10]

On their first crossing the equator in military and commercial navigation, each “pollywog” is subjected to a series of tests usually including running or crawling a gauntlet of abuse and various scenes supposedly situated at King Neptune’s court. A pledge auction is a variation on the slave auction, where people bid on the paraded pledges.

Hazing also occurs for apprentices in some trades. In printing, it consists of applying bronze blue to the apprentice’s penis and testicles, a color made by mixing black printers ink and dark blue printers ink, which takes a long time to wash off. Similarly, mechanics get their groins smeared with old dirty grease.

Hazing by women of their suitors, often assisted by the women’s friends, can also play a role in budding romantic relationships, usually taking mental and psychological rather than physical forms, and apparently for the same basic purposes as other hazing.

Seeking a Free Consultation with one of Texas’ Houston Frat Hazing Lawyers? Call the Fraternity Hazing Lawyer Reshard Alexander today at 713.766.3322.

Hazing supposedly serves a deliberate purpose of building solidarity. Psychologist Robert Cialdini uses the framework of consistency and commitment to explain the phenomenon of hazing and the vigor and zeal to which practitioners of hazing persist in and defend these activities even when they are made illegal.[11] Cialdini cites a 1959 study in which the researchers observed that “persons who go through a great deal of trouble or pain to attain something tend to value it more highly than persons who attain the same thing with a minimum of effort”.[12] The 1959 study shaped the development of cognitive dissonance theory by Leon Festinger.[13]

There are several psychological effects that both the hazer and hazee endure throughout the hazing process. In an article published by Raalte, Cornelius, Linder, and Brewer, the researchers used sports teams as the subject of their study. The authors suggest that hazing can result in some positive outcomes. During the hazing process, a bond between the two parties (the hazer and the hazee) grew.[14] Many people view hazing as an effective way to teach respect and develop discipline and loyalty within the group, and believe that hazing is a necessary component of initiation rites.[15] Hazing can be used as a way to engender conformity within a social group, something that can be seen in many sociological studies. Moreover, initiation rituals when managed effectively can serve to build team cohesion and improve team performance,[16] while negative and detrimental forms of hazing alienate and disparage individuals.[17]

Dissonance can produce feelings of group attraction or social identity among initiates after the hazing experience because they want to justify the effort used. Rewards during initiations or hazing rituals matter in that initiates who feel more rewarded express stronger group identity.[18] As well as increasing group attraction, hazing can produce conformity among new members.[19] Hazing could also increase feelings of affiliation because of the stressful nature of the hazing experience.[20] Also, hazing has a hard time of being extinguished by those who saw it to be potentially dangerous like administration in education or law enforcement. In an article published by Linda Wilson, she and the National Pan-Hellenic Council Leaders at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University gave their perspectives and opinions on hazing at their institution, and she discussed why hazing is so hard to discontinue. The reason why is because the act of hazing is deeply rooted traditionally, so it becomes hard to break those traditional actions.[21] For example, York College in Pennsylvania tried to solve this issue with suspending students who partake in the act. However, it is hard to dismantle not only because of tradition, but also because it is meant to be done in private spaces. It is not meant to be public which makes getting rid of it even harder.

A 2014 paper by Harvey Whitehouse[22] discusses theories that hazing can cause social cohesion though group identification and identity fusion. A 2017 study published in Scientific Reports found that groups that share painful or strong negative experiences can cause visceral[vague] bonding, and pro-group behavior.[23] Students of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu who had experienced painful belt-whipping gauntlets had a higher willingness to donate time or risk their lives for the club.

Seeking a Free Consultation with one of Texas’ Houston Frat Hazing Lawyers? Call the Fraternity Hazing Lawyer Reshard Alexander today at 713.766.3322.

According to one of the largest US National Surveys regarding hazing including over 60,000 student-athletes from 2,400 colleges and universities:[24]

Over 325,000 athletes at more than 1,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association schools in the US participated in intercollegiate sports during 1998–99. Of these athletes:

  • More than a quarter of a million experienced some form of hazing to join a college athletic team.
  • One in five was subjected to unacceptable and potentially illegal hazing. They were kidnapped, beaten or tied up and abandoned. They were also forced to commit crimes – destroying property, making prank phone calls or harassing others.
  • Half were required to participate in drinking contests or alcohol-related hazing.
  • Two in five consumed alcohol on recruitment visits even before enrolling.
  • Two-thirds were subjected to humiliating hazing, such as being yelled or sworn at, forced to wear embarrassing clothing (if any clothing at all) or forced to deprive themselves of sleep, food or personal hygiene.
  • One in five participated exclusively in positive initiations, such as team trips or ropes courses.

The survey found that 79% of college athletes experienced some form of hazing to join their team, yet 60% of the student-athletes respondents indicated that they would not report incidents of hazing.[24]

A 2007 survey at American colleges found 55% of students in “clubs, teams, and organizations” experienced behavior the survey defined as hazing, including in varsity athletics and Greek-letter organizations. This survey found 47% of respondents experienced hazing before college, and in 25% of hazing cases, school staff were aware of the activity. 90% of students who experienced behavior the researchers defined as hazing did not consider themselves to have been hazed, and 95% of those who experienced what they themselves defined as hazing did not report it. The most common hazing-related activities reported in student groups included alcohol consumption, humiliation, isolation, sleep deprivation, and sex acts.[25]

Police forces, especially those with a paramilitary tradition, or sub-units of police forces such as tactical teams, may also have hazing rituals. Rescue services, such as lifeguards[26][27] or air-sea rescue teams may have hazing rituals.

Seeking a Free Consultation with one of Texas’ Houston Frat Hazing Lawyers? Call the Fraternity Hazing Lawyer Reshard Alexander today at 713.766.3322.

The practice of ritual abuse among social groups is not clearly understood. This is partly due to the secretive nature of the activities, especially within collegiate fraternities and sororities, and in part a result of long-term acceptance of hazing. Thus, it has been difficult for researchers to agree on the underlying social and psychological mechanisms that perpetuate hazing. In military circles hazing is sometimes assumed to test recruits under situations of stress and hostility. Although in no way a recreation of combat, hazing does put people into stressful situations that they are unable to control, which allegedly should weed out the weaker members prior to being put in situations where failure to perform will cost lives. A portion of the military training course known as Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape (SERE) simulates as closely as is feasible the physical and psychological conditions of a POW camp.

The problem with this approach, according to opponents, is that the stress and hostility comes from inside the group, and not from outside as in actual combat situation, creating suspicion and distrust towards the superiors and comrades-in-arms. Willing participants may be motivated by a desire to prove to senior soldiers their stability in future combat situations, making the unit more secure, but blatantly brutal hazing can in fact produce negative results, making the units more prone to break, desert or mutiny than those without hazing traditions, as observed in the Russian army in Chechnya, where units with the strongest traditions of dedovschina were the first to break and desert under enemy fire.[38] At worst, hazing may lead into fragging incidents. Colleges and universities sometimes avoid publicizing hazing incidents for fear of damaging institutional reputations or incurring financial liability to victims.[39]

In a 1999 study, a survey of 3,293 collegiate athletes, coaches, athletic directors and deans found a variety of approaches to prevent hazing, including strong disciplinary and corrective measures for known cases, implementation of athletic, behavioral, and academic standards guiding recruitment; provisions for alternative bonding and recognition events for teams to prevent hazing; and law enforcement involvement in monitoring, investigating, and prosecuting hazing incidents.[24] Hoover’s research suggested half of all college athletes are involved in alcohol-related hazing incidents, while one in five are involved in potentially illegal hazing incidents. Only another one in five was involved in what Hoover described as positive initiation events, such as taking team trips or running obstacle courses.

Hoover wrote: “Athletes most at risk for any kind of hazing for college sports were men; non-Greek members; and either swimmers, divers, soccer players, or lacrosse players. The campuses where hazing was most likely to occur were primarily in eastern or southern states with no anti-hazing laws. The campuses were rural, residential, and had Greek systems.”[24] (Hoover uses the term “Greek” to refer to U.S.-style fraternities and sororities.) Hoover found that non-fraternity members were most at risk of hazing, and that football players are most at risk of potentially dangerous or illegal hazing.[24] In the May issue of the American Journal of Emergency Medicine, Michelle Finkel reported that hazing injuries are often not recognized for their true cause in emergency medical centers. The doctor said hazing victims sometimes hide the real cause of injuries out of shame or to protect those who caused the harm. In protecting their abusers, hazing victims can be compared with victims of domestic violence, Finkel wrote.[40]

Finkel cites hazing incidents including “beating or kicking to the point of traumatic injury or death, burning or branding, excessive calisthenics, being forced to eat unpleasant substances, and psychological or sexual abuse of both males and females”. Reported coerced sexual activity is sometimes considered “horseplay” rather than rape, she wrote.[40] Finkel quoted from Hank Nuwer’s book “Wrongs of Passage” which counted 56 hazing deaths between 1970 and 1999.[41]

In November 2005, controversy arose over a video showing Royal Marines fighting naked and intoxicated as part of a hazing ritual. The fight culminated with one soldier receiving a kick to the face, rendering him unconscious.[42] The victim, according to the BBC, said “It’s just Marine humour”.[43] The Marine who leaked the video said “The guy laid out was inches from being dead.” Under further investigation, the Marines had just returned from a six-month tour of Iraq, and were in their “cooling down” period, in which they spend two weeks at a naval base before they are allowed back into society. The man who suffered the kick to the head did not press charges.

In 2008, a national hazing study was conducted by Dr. Elizabeth Allan and Dr. Mary Madden from the University of Maine. This investigation is the most comprehensive study of hazing to date and includes survey responses from more than 11,000 undergraduate students at 53 colleges and universities in different regions of the U.S. and interviews with more than 300 students and staff at 18 of these campuses. Through the vision and efforts of many, this study fills a major gap in the research and extends the breadth and depth of knowledge and understanding about hazing. Ten initial findings are described in the report, Hazing in View: College Students at Risk. These include:

  1. More than half of college students involved in clubs, teams, and organizations experience hazing.
  2. Nearly half (47%) of students have experienced hazing prior to coming to college.
  3. Alcohol consumption, humiliation, isolation, sleep deprivation, and sex acts are hazing practices common across student groups.[2]

Texas Personal Injury Lawyer Reshard Alexander

Seeking a Free Consultation with one of Texas’ Houston Frat Hazing Lawyers? Call the Fraternity Hazing Lawyer Reshard Alexander today at 713.766.3322.

Reshard Alexander serving Houston and the Texas legal community since 2011.

Texas Practice Areas
Houston Wrongful Death Lawyer
Houston Auto Accident Lawyer
Houston Work Accident Lawyer
Houston Dog Bite Lawyer

Houston Fraternity Hazing Lawyer
Houston Fraternity Hazing Death Lawyer
Houston Fraternity Hazing Injury Lawyer

Attorney Reshard Alexander – Big Rig Bull Texas Truck Accident Lawyer represents clients in all Texas counties, including: Anderson, Andrews, Angelina, Aransas, Archer, Armstrong, Atascosa, Austin, Bailey, Bandera, Bastrop, Baylor, Bee, Bell, Bexar, Blanco, Borden, Bosque, Bowie, Brazoria, Brazos, Brewster, Briscoe, Brooks, Brown, Burleson, Burnet, Caldwell, Calhoun, Callahan, Cameron, Camp, Carson, Cass, Castro, Chambers, Cherokee,Childress, Clay, Cochran, Coke, Coleman, Collin, Collingsworth, Colorado, Comal, Comanche, Concho, Cooke, Coryell, Cottle, Crane, Crockett, Crosby, Culberson, Dallam, Dallas, Dawson, Deaf Smith, Delta, Denton, DeWitt, Dickens, Dimmit, Donley, Duval, Eastland, Ector, Edwards, El Paso, Ellis, Erath, Falls, Fannin, Fayette, Fisher, Floyd, Foard, Fort Bend, Franklin, Freestone, Frio, Gaines, Galveston, Garza, Gillespie, Glasscock, Goliad, Gonzales, Gray, Grayson, Gregg, Grimes, Guadalupe, Hale, Hall, Hamilton, Hansford, Hardeman, Hardin, Harris County Car Accident Lawyer, Harrison, Hartley, Haskell, Hays, Hemphill, Henderson, Hidalgo, Hill, Hockley, Hood, Hopkins, Houston, Howard, Hudspeth, Hunt, Hutchinson, Irion, Jack, Jackson, Jasper, Jeff Davis, Jefferson, Jim Hogg, Jim Wells, Johnson, Jones, Karnes, Kaufman, Kendall, Kenedy, Kent, Kerr, Kimble, King, Kinney, Kleberg, Knox, La Salle, Lamar, Lamb, Lampasas, Lavaca, Lee, Leon, Liberty, Limestone, Lipscomb, Live Oak, Llano, Loving, Lubbock, Lynn, Madison, Marion, Martin, Mason, Matagorda, Maverick, McCulloch, McLennan, McMullen, Medina, Menard, Milam, Mills, Mitchell, Montague, Montgomery, Moore, Morris, Motley, Nacogdoches, Navarro, Newton, Nolan, Nueces, Ochiltree, Oldham, Orange, Palo Pinto, Panola, Parker, Parmer, Pecos, Polk, Potter, Presidio, Rains, Randall, Reagan, Real, Red River, Reeves, Refugio, Roberts, Robertson, Rockwall, Runnels, Rusk, Sabine, San Augustine, San Jacinto, San Patricio, San Saba, Schleicher, Scurry, Shackelford, Shelby, Sherman, Smith, Somervell, Starr, Stephens, Sterling, Stonewall, Sutton, Swisher, Tarrant, Taylor, Terrell, Terry, Throckmorton, Titus, Tom Green, Travis, Trinity, Tyler, Upshur, Upton, Uvalde, Val Verde, Van Zandt, Victoria, Walker, Waller, Ward, Washington, Webb, Wharton, Wheeler, Wichita, Wilbarger, Willacy, Williamson, Wilson, Winkler, Wise, Wood, Yoakum, Young, Zapata, and Zavala counties; and all Texas cities, including: Houston Car Accident Lawyer, Aldine Car Accident Lawyer , Algoa Car Accident Lawyer, Alief Car Accident Lawyer, Alvin Car Accident Lawyer, Anahuac Car Accident Lawyer, Angleton Car Accident Lawyer, Atascocita Car Accident Lawyer, Bay City Car Accident Lawyer, Bayou Vista Car Accident Lawyer, Baytown Car Accident Lawyer, Bellaire Car Accident Lawyer, Bellville TX Car Accident Lawyer, Beaumont Car Accident Lawyer, Brazoria Car Accident Lawyer, Brenham Car Accident Lawyer, Brookshire Car Accident Lawyer, Bryan Car Accident Lawyer, Cedar Creek Car Accident Lawyer, Channelview Car Accident Lawyer, China TX Car Accident Lawyer, Clear Lake City Car Accident Lawyer, Cleveland TX Car Accident Lawyer, Clute Car Accident Lawyer, Columbus TX Car Accident Lawyer, College Station Car Accident Lawyer, Conroe Car Accident Lawyer, Crosby Car Accident Lawyer, Cypress Car Accident Lawyer, Dayton Car Accident Lawyer, Deer Park Car Accident Lawyer, Dickinson Car Accident Lawyer, Eagle Lake Car Accident Lawyer, East Bernard Car Accident Lawyer, Edna Car Accident Lawyer, El Campo Car Accident Lawyer, Elmgrove Car Accident Lawyer, Flatonia Car Accident Lawyer, Freeport Car Accident Lawyer, Fresno Car Accident Lawyer, Friendswood Car Accident Lawyer, Fulshear TX Car Accident Lawyer, Galena Park Car Accident Lawyer, Galveston Car Accident Lawyer, Ganado TX Car Accident Lawyer, Garden Villas Car Accident Lawyer, Hardin Car Accident Lawyer, Hearne Car Accident Lawyer, Hempstead Car Accident Lawyer, Hillcrest Car Accident Lawyer, Hitchcock Car Accident Lawyer, Hockley TX Car Accident Lawyer, Humble Car Accident Lawyer, Huntsville Car Accident Lawyer, Inez Car Accident Lawyer, Jacinto City Car Accident Lawyer, Jamaica Beach Car Accident Lawyer, Jersey Village Car Accident Lawyer, Katy Car Accident Lawyer, Kemah Car Accident Lawyer, Kingwood TX Car Accident Lawyer, La Marque Car Accident Lawyer, La Porte Car Accident Lawyer, Lake Jackson Car Accident Lawyer, League City Car Accident Lawyer, Liberty TX Car Accident Lawyer, Liverpool TX Car Accident Lawyer, Livingston TX Car Accident Lawyer, Long Point TX Car Accident Lawyer, Louise TX Car Accident Lawyer, Lufkin Car Accident Lawyer, Madisonville Car Accident Lawyer, Magnolia Car Accident Lawyer, Meadows Place Car Accident Lawyer, Missouri City Car Accident Lawyer, Montgomery Car Accident Lawyer, Morgan’s Point Car Accident Lawyer, Moss Hill Car Accident Lawyer, Mount Belvieu Car Accident Lawyer, Nacogdoches Car Accident Lawyer, Navasota Car Accident Lawyer, Nassau Bay Car Accident Lawyer, Needville Car Accident Lawyer, Pasadena TX Car Accident Lawyer, Pearland Car Accident Lawyer, Port Bolivar Car Accident Lawyer, Porter Car Accident Lawyer, Prairie View Car Accident Lawyer, Richmond Car Accident Lawyer, Rosenberg Car Accident Lawyer, Rosharon Car Accident Lawyer, San Leon Car Accident Lawyer, Seabrook Car Accident Lawyer, Schulenburg Car Accident Lawyer, Sealy Car Accident Lawyer, Shenandoah Car Accident Lawyer, Shoreacres Car Accident Lawyer, Southside Place Car Accident Lawyer, Spring Car Accident Lawyer, Spring Branch Car Accident Lawyer, Stafford Car Accident Lawyer, Sugar Land Car Accident Lawyer, Texas City Car Accident Lawyer, Todd Mission Car Accident Lawyer, Tomball Car Accident Lawyer, Van Vleck Car Accident Lawyer, Waller TX Car Accident Lawyer, Webster Car Accident Lawyer, West Columbia TX Car Accident Lawyer, Wharton Car Accident Lawyer, Willis TX Car Accident Lawyer, Winnie Car Accident Lawyer, and The Woodlands Car Accident Lawyer.