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Dangerous goods, abbreviated DG, are substances that when transported are a risk to health, safety, property or the environment. Certain dangerous goods that pose risks even when not being transported are known as hazardous materials (abbreviated as HAZMAT or hazmat).

Hazardous materials are often subject to chemical regulations. Hazmat teams are personnel specially trained to handle dangerous goods, which include materials that are radioactiveflammableexplosivecorrosiveoxidizingasphyxiatingbiohazardoustoxicpathogenic, or allergenic. Also included are physical conditions such as compressed gases and liquids or hot materials, including all goods containing such materials or chemicals, or may have other characteristics that render them hazardous in specific circumstances.

In the United States, dangerous goods are often indicated by diamond-shaped signage on the item (see NFPA 704), its container, or the building where it is stored. The color of each diamond indicates its hazard, e.g., flammable is indicated with red, because fire and heat are generally of red color, and explosive is indicated with orange, because mixing red (flammable) with yellow (oxidizing agent) creates orange. A nonflammable and nontoxic gas is indicated with green, because all compressed air vessels are this color in France after World War II, and France was where the diamond system of hazmat identification originated.

Every hazardous material is assigned to one of nine hazard classes as defined in 49 CFR 172.101 and 173. The nine hazard classes are as follows:

Class 1: Explosives.
Class 2: Gases.
Class 3: Flammable and Combustible Liquids.
Class 4: Flammable Solids.
Class 5: Oxidizing Substances, Organic Peroxides.
Class 6: Toxic Substances and Infectious Substances.
Class 7: Radioactive Materials.
Class 8: Corrosives.
Class 9: Miscellaneous Hazardous Materials.

Dangerous goods are divided into nine classes (in addition to several subcategories) on the basis of the specific chemical characteristics producing the risk.[2]

Note: The graphics and text in this article representing the dangerous goods safety marks are derived from the United Nations-based system of identifying dangerous goods. Not all countries use precisely the same graphics (label, placard or text information) in their national regulations. Some use graphic symbols, but without English wording or with similar wording in their national language. Refer to the dangerous goods transportation regulations of the country of interest.

For example, see the TDG Bulletin: Dangerous Goods Safety Marks[3] based on the Canadian Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations.

The statement above applies equally to all the dangerous goods classes discussed in this article.

Hazmat Class 1 are Explosive materials, which are any substance or article, including a device, which is designed to function by explosion or which, by chemical reaction within itself is able to function in a similar manner even if not designed to function by explosion.[a]

Class 1 consists of six ‘divisions‘, that describes the potential hazard posed by the explosive. The division number is the second number after the decimal point on a placard.[b] The classification has an additional layer, of categorization, known as ‘compatibility groups‘, which breaks explosives in the same division into one of 13 groups, identified by a letter, which is used to separate incompatible explosives from each other. This letter also appears on the placard, following the number.[c]

The movement of class 1 materials is tightly regulated, especially for divisions 1.1 and 1.2, which represent some of the most dangerous explosives, with the greatest potential for destruction and loss of life. Regulations in the United States require drivers have and follow a pre-prepared route, not park the vehicle within 300 feet (91 m) of bridges, tunnels, a fire, or crowded places.[1] The vehicle must be attended to by its driver at all times while its parked. Drivers are also required to carry the following paperwork and keep it in an accessible and easy to locate location: written emergency instructions, written route plan, a copy of Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations, Part 397 – Transport of Hazardous Materials; driving and parking rules[2] Some tunnels and bridges severely restrict or completely forbid vehicles carrying Class 1 cargoes.[3][4]

The HAZMAT Class 2 in United States law includes all gases which are compressed and stored for transportation. Class 2 has three divisions: Flammable (also called combustible), Non-Flammable/Non-Poisonous, and Poisonous. This classification is based on the United Nations’ Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods – Model Regulations. In Canada, the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations, or TDGR, are also based on the UN Model Regulations and contain the same three divisions.

gas is a substance which

  1. (a) at 50 °C (122 °F) has a vapor pressure greater than 300 kPa (43.51 PSI) or
  2. (b) is completely gaseous at 20 °C (68 °F) at a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa (14.69 PSI).

Gases are assigned to one of three divisions

  1. division 2.1 Flammable gas
  2. division 2.2 Non flammable, Non-toxic gas
  3. division 2.3 Toxic gas

Aerosols also fall into Class 2 divisions where an aerosol is defined as an article consisting of any non-refillable receptacle containing a gas compressed, liquefied or dissolved under pressure, the sole purpose of which is to expel a nonpoisonous (other than a Division 6.1 Packing Group III material) liquid, paste, or powder and fitted with a self-closing release device allowing the contents to be ejected by the gas.

Flammable gas means any material that:

  1. Is ignitable at 101.3 kPA (14.7 psia) when in a mixture of 13 percent or less by volume with air; or
  2. Has a flammable range at 101.3 kPa with air of at least 12 percent regardless of the lower limit.
  3. Is determined to be flammable in accordance with ASTM E681-85, Standard Test Method for Concentration Limits of Flammability of Chemicals

The following applies to aerosols:

  1. An aerosol must be assigned to Division 2.1 if the contents include 85% by mass or more flammable components and the chemical heat of combustion is 30 kJ/g or more;
  2. An aerosol must be assigned to Division 2.1 if it is deemed flammable in accordance with the appropriate tests of the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria for flammability.

Division 2.2: Non-Flammable, Non-Toxic Gas

This division includes compressed gas, liquefied gas, pressurized cryogenic gas, compressed gas in solution, asphyxiant gas and oxidizing gas. A non-flammable, nonpoisonous compressed gas (Division 2.2) means any material (or mixture) which:

A non-flammable gas means any material that:

  1. Exerts in the packaging an absolute pressure of 280 kPa (40.6 psia) or greater at 20 °C (68 °F), and
  2. Does not meet the definition of Division 2.1 or 2.3.

The following applies to aerosols:

  1. An aerosol must be assigned to Division 2.2 if the contents contain 1% by mass or less flammable components and the heat of combustion is less than 20 kJ/g.

Division 2.3: Toxic Gas

Gas poisonous by inhalation means a material which is a gas at 20 °C or less and a pressure of 101.3 kPa (a material which has a boiling point of 20 °C or less at 101.3kPa (14.7 psi)) and which:

  1. Is known to be so toxic to humans as to pose a hazard to health during transportation, or
  2. In the absence of adequate data on human toxicity, is presumed to be toxic to humans because when tested on laboratory animals it has an LC50 value of not more than 5000 ml/m³. See 49CFR 173.116(a) for assignment of Hazard Zones A, B, C or D. LC50 values for mixtures may be determined using the formula in 49 CFR 173.133(b)(1)(i)

Class 3: Flammable Liquids

flammable liquid is a liquid having a flash point of not more than 60 °C (140 °F), or any material in a liquid phase with a flash point at or above 37.8 °C (100 °F) that is intentionally heated and offered for transportation or transported at or above its flash point in a bulk packaging. The following exceptions apply:

  1. Any liquid meeting one of the definitions specified in 49CFR 173.115.
  2. Any mixture having one or more components with a flash point of 60.5 °C (141 °F) or higher, that make up at least 99 percent of the total volume of the mixture, if the mixture is not offered for transportation or transported at or above its flash point.
  3. Any liquid with a flash point greater than 35 °C (95 °F) which does not sustain combustion according to ASTM 4206 or the procedure in Appendix H of this part.
  4. Any liquid with a flash point greater than 35 °C (95 °F) and with a fire point greater than 100 °C (212 °F) according to ISO 2592.
  5. Any liquid with a flash point greater than 35 °C (95 °F) which is in a water-miscible solution with a water content of more than 90 percent by mass.

Flash Point: The flash point is the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid.

flammable liquid is a liquid with flash point of not more than 60.5 °C (141 °F), or any material in a liquid phase with a flash point at or above 37.8 °C (100 °f) that is intentionally heated and offered for transportation or transported at or above its flash point in a bulk packaging.

Alternate Placards and Labeling

  • Combustible Liquids:
    • A combustible liquid means any liquid that does not meet the definition of any other hazard class specified in this subchapter and has a flash point above 60.5 °C (141 °F) and below 93 °C (200 °F).
    • A flammable liquid with a flash point at or above 38 °C (100 °F) that does not meet the definition of any other hazard class may be reclassed as a combustible liquid. This provision does not apply to transportation by vessel or aircraft, except where other means of transportation is impracticable. An elevated temperature material that meets the definition of a Class 3 material because it is intentionally heated and offered for transportation or transported at or above its flash point may not be reclassed as a combustible liquid.
    • A combustible liquid which does not sustain combustion is not subject to the requirements of this subchapter as a combustible liquid. Either the test method specified in ASTM 4206 or the procedure in Appendix H of this part may be used to determine if a material sustains combustion when heated under test conditions and exposed to an external source of flame.
  • Gasoline: This placard is an alternative placard, which may be used for gasoline in non-bulk quantities.
  • Fuel Oil: This placard is an alternative placard, which may be used for fuel oil in non-bulk quantities.

Division 4.1: Flammable Solid

Flammable solids are any of the following four types of materials:

  1. Desensitized Explosives: explosives that, when dry, are Explosives of Class 1 other than those of compatibility group A, which are wetted with sufficient water, alcohol, or plasticizer to suppress explosive properties; and are specifically authorized by name either in the 49CFR 172.101 Table or have been assigned a shipping name and hazard class by the Associate Administrator for Hazardous Materials Safety.
  2. Self-Reactive Materials: materials that are thermally unstable and that can undergo a strongly exothermic decomposition even without participation of oxygen (air). Certain exclusions to this group do apply under 49 CFR.
  3. Generic Types: Division 4.1 self-reactive materials are assigned to a generic system consisting of seven types. A self-reactive substance identified by technical name in the Self-Reactive Materials Table in 49CFR 173.224 is assigned to a generic type in accordance with that Table. Self-reactive materials not identified in the Self-Reactive Materials Table in 49CFR 173.224 are assigned to generic types under the procedures of paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section.
  4. Readily Combustible Solids: materials that are solids which may cause a fire through friction, such as matches; show a burning rate faster than 2.2 mm (0.087 inches) per second when tested in accordance with UN Manual of Tests and Criteria; or are any metal powders that can be ignited and react over the whole length of a sample in 10 minutes or less, when tested in accordance with UN Manual of Tests and Criteria.
Type Description
Type A Self-reactive material type A is a self-reactive material which, as packaged for transportation, can detonate or deflagrate rapidly. Transportation of type A self-reactive material is forbidden.
Type B Self-reactive material type B is a self-reactive material which, as packaged for transportation, neither detonates nor deflagrates rapidly, but is liable to undergo a thermal explosion in a package.
Type C Self-reactive material type C is a self-reactive material which, as packaged for transportation, neither detonates nor deflagrates rapidly and cannot undergo a thermal explosion.
Type D Self-reactive material type D is a self-reactive material which:

  1. Detonates partially, does not deflagrate rapidly and shows no violent effect when heated under confinement;
  2. Does not detonate at all, deflagrates slowly and shows no violent effect when heated under confinement; or
  3. Does not detonate or deflagrate at all and shows a medium effect when heated under confinement.
Type E Self-reactive material type E is a self-reactive material which, in laboratory testing, neither detonates nor deflagrates at all and shows only a low or no effect when heated under confinement.
Type F Self-reactive material type F is a self-reactive material which, in laboratory testing, neither detonates in the cavitated state nor deflagrates at all and shows only a low or no effect when heated under confinement as well as low or no explosive power.
Type G Self-reactive material type G is a self-reactive material which, in laboratory testing, does not detonate in the cavitated state, will not deflagrate at all, shows no effect when heated under confinement, nor shows any explosive power. A type G self-reactive material is not subject to the requirements of this subchapter for self-reactive material of Division 4.1 provided that it is thermally stable (self-accelerating decomposition temperature is 50°C (122°F) or higher for a 50 kg (110 pounds) package). A self-reactive material meeting all characteristics of type G except thermal stability is classed as a type F self-reactive, temperature control material.

Division 4.2: Spontaneously Combustible

Spontaneously combustible material is:

  1. Pyrophoric Material: A pyrophoric material is a liquid or solid that, even in small quantities and without an external ignition source, can ignite within five (5) minutes after coming in contact with air when tested according to the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria.
  2. Self-Heating Material: A self-heating material is a material that, when in contact with air and without an energy supply, is liable to self-heat.

Division 4.3: Dangerous When Wet

Dangerous when wet material is material that, by contact with water, is liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable or toxic gas at a rate greater than 1 liter per kilogram of the material, per hour, when tested in accordance with the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria. Pure alkali metals are known examples of this.

Flammable solids are any materials in the solid phase of matter that can readily undergo combustion in the presence of a source of ignition under standard circumstances, i.e. without:

  • Artificially changing variables such as pressure or density; or
  • Adding accelerants.

Division 5.1: Oxidizers

  1. A solid material is classed as a Division 5.1 material if, when tested in accordance with the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria, its mean burning time is less than or equal to the burning time of a 3:7 potassium bromate/cellulose mixture.
  2. A liquid material is classed as a Division 5.1 material if, when tested in accordance with the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria, it spontaneously ignites or its mean time for a pressure rise from 690 kPa to 2070 kPa gauge is less than the time of a 1:1 nitric acid (65 percent)/cellulose mixture.

Division 5.2: Organic Peroxides

An organic peroxide is any organic compound containing oxygen (O) in the bivalent -O-O- structure and which may be considered a derivative of hydrogen peroxide, where one or more of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic radicals, unless any of the following paragraphs applies:

  1. The material meets the definition of an explosive as prescribed in subpart C of this part, in which case it must be classed as an explosive (applies to acetone peroxide, for example)
  2. The material is forbidden from being offered for transportation according to 49CFR 172.101 of this subchapter or 49CFR 173.21;
  3. The Associate Administrator for Hazardous Materials Safety has determined that the material does not present a hazard which is associated with a Division 5.2 material; or
  4. The material meets one of the following conditions:
  • For materials containing no more than 1.0 percent hydrogen peroxide, the available oxygen, as calculated using the equation in paragraph (a)(4)(ii) of this section, is not more than 1.0 percent, or
  • For materials containing more than 1.0 percent but not more than 7.0 percent hydrogen peroxide, the available oxygen content (Oa) is not more than 0.5 percent, when determined using the equation:
Oa = 16x {\displaystyle \sum _{i=1}^{k}{\frac {n_{i}c_{i}}{m_{i}}}}
where for a material containing k species of organic peroxides:
{\displaystyle n_{i}} = number of -O-O- groups per molecule of the {\displaystyle i^{th}} species
{\displaystyle c_{i}} = concentration (mass percent) of the {\displaystyle i^{th}} species
{\displaystyle m_{i}} = molecular mass of the {\displaystyle i^{th}} species

An oxidizer is a chemical that readily yields oxygen in reactions, thereby causing or enhancing combustion.

Division 6.1: Poisonous material is a material, other than a gas, which is known to be so toxic to humans as to afford a hazard to health during transportation, or which, in the absence of adequate data on human toxicity:

  • Is presumed to be toxic to humans because it falls within any one of the following categories when tested on laboratory animals (whenever possible, animal test data that has been reported in the chemical literature should be used):
  1. Oral Toxicity: A liquid or solid with an LD50 for acute oral toxicity of not more than 300 mg/kg.
  2. Dermal Toxicity. A material with an LD50 for acute dermal toxicity of not more than 1000 mg/kg.
  3. Inhalation Toxicity: A dust or mist with an LC50 for acute toxicity on inhalation of not more than 4 mg/L; or a material with a saturated vapor concentration in air at 20 °C (68 °F) of more than one-fifth of the LC50 for acute toxicity on inhalation of vapors and with an LC50 for acute toxicity on inhalation of vapors of not more than 5000 ml/m³; or
  • Is an irritating material, with properties similar to tear gas, which causes extreme irritation, especially in confined spaces.

Division 6.2Biohazards.

Placards

Class 6.1: Poison Hazardous Materials
Class 6.1: Poison
Class 6.2: Biohazard Hazardous Materials
Class 6.2: Biohazard
Class 6: Poison Gas III Hazardous Materials
Class 6: Packing Group III
Class 6: Toxic Hazardous Materials
Class 6: Toxic
  • Poison: 454 kg (1001 lb) or more gross weight of poisonous materials that are not in Hazard Zone A or B (see Assignment of packing groups and hazard zones below). For U.S. Domestic Use only.
  • Inhalation Hazard: Any quantity of a material that is in Hazard Zone A or B (see Assignment of packing groups and hazard zones below).
  • Toxic: May be used instead of POISON placard on 454 kg (1001 lb) or more gross weight of poisonous materials that are not in Hazard Zone A or B (see Assignment of packing groups and hazard zones below). For international shipments the label must say Toxic if it will be worded.
  • PG III (Packing Group III): May be used instead of POISON placard on 454 kg (1001 lb) or more gross weight of Poison PG III materials (see Assignment of packing groups and hazard zones below).

Lethality

Lethal Dose 50

  1. Oral Toxicity: LD50 for acute oral toxicity means that dose of the material administered to both male and female young adult albino rats which causes death within 14 days in half the animals tested. The number of animals tested must be sufficient to give statistically valid results and be in conformity with good pharmacological practices. The result is expressed in mg/kg body mass.
  2. Dermal Toxicity: LD50 for acute dermal toxicity means that dose of the material which, administered by continuous contact for 24 hours with the shaved intact skin (avoiding abrading) of an albino rabbit, causes death within 14 days in half of the animals tested. The number of animals tested must be sufficient to give statistically valid results and be in conformity with good pharmacological practices. The result is expressed in mg/kg body mass.
Determining Acute LD50
For purposes of classifying and assigning packing groups to mixtures possessing oral or dermal toxicity hazards according to the criteria in 49CFR 173.133(a)(1), it is necessary to determine the acute LD50 of the mixture. If a mixture contains more than one active constituent, one of the following methods may be used to determine the oral or dermal LD50 of the mixture:

  1. Obtain reliable acute oral and dermal toxicity data on the actual mixture to be transported;
  2. If reliable, accurate data is not available, classify the formulation according to the most hazardous constituent of the mixture as if that constituent were present in the same concentration as the total concentration of all active constituents; or
  3. If reliable, accurate data is not available, apply the formula:
where:
{\displaystyle {\tfrac {C_{A}}{T_{A}}}+{\tfrac {C_{B}}{T_{B}}}+{\tfrac {C_{Z}}{T_{Z}}}={\tfrac {100}{T_{M}}}}
{\displaystyle C}= the percent concentration of constituent A, B … Z in the mixture;
{\displaystyle T} = the oral LD50 values of constituent A, B … Z;
{\displaystyle T_{M}} = the oral LD50 value of the mixture.

Lethal Concentration 50

LC50 for acute toxicity on inhalation means that concentration of vapor, mist, or dust which, administered by continuous inhalation for one hour to both male and female young adult albino rats, causes death within 14 days in half of the animals tested. If the material is administered to the animals as a dust or mist, more than 90 percent of the particles available for inhalation in the test must have a diameter of 10 micrometres or less if it is reasonably foreseeable that such concentrations could be encountered by a human during transport. The result is expressed in mg/L of air for dusts and mists or in mL/m³ of air (parts per million) for vapors. See 49CFR 173.133(b) for LC50 determination for mixtures and for limit tests.

Load and Segregation Chart
Weight 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 3 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2 6.1 7 8
A B A
6.1A Any Quantity E No No No O No O No No No No No No No
Key
The absence of any hazard class or division or a blank space in the table indicates that no restrictions apply.

  • X: These materials may not be loaded, transported, or stored together in the same transport vehicle or storage facility during the course of transportation.
  • O: Indicates that these materials may not be loaded, transported or stored together in the same transport vehicle or storage facility during the course of transportation, unless separated in a manner that, in the event of leakage from packages under conditions normally incident to transportation, commingling of hazardous materials would not occur.
  • E: Packages with “Poison” or “Poison Inhalation Hazard” markings, or a “Poison” marking with “PG III” or “PG III” beside a “Poison” label, may not be transported with foodstuffs, feed, or any other edible material, intended for consumption by humans or animals. For exceptions see §177.841(e)

Source: United States Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49 CFR §177.848 – Segregation of hazardous materials.[1]

Packing groups

Class 6 Packing Groups and Hazard Zones
The packing group of Division 6.1 materials shall be as assigned in Column 5 of the 49CFR 172.101 Table. When the 49CFR 172.101 Table provides more than one packing group or hazard zone for a hazardous material, the packing group and hazard zone shall be determined by applying the following criteria:
1. The packing group assignment for routes of administration other than inhalation of vapors shall be in accordance with the following table:

Group Oral Toxicity
LD50 {\displaystyle {\tfrac {mg}{kg}}}
Dermal Toxicity
LD50 {\displaystyle {\tfrac {mg}{kg}}}
Inhalation Toxicity
(Dust/Mist)
LC50 {\displaystyle {\tfrac {mg}{L}}}
I {\displaystyle \leq 5} {\displaystyle \leq 50} {\displaystyle \leq 0.2}
II {\displaystyle >5} but {\displaystyle \leq 50} {\displaystyle >50} but {\displaystyle \leq 200} {\displaystyle >0.2} but {\displaystyle \leq 2}
III {\displaystyle >50} but {\displaystyle \leq 300} {\displaystyle >200} but {\displaystyle \leq 1000} {\displaystyle >2} but {\displaystyle \leq 4}

2. The packing group and hazard zone assignments for liquids (see 49CFR 173.115(c) of this subpart for gases) based on inhalation of vapors shall be in accordance with the following Table:

Packing Group Hazard Zone Vapor Concentration and Toxicity
I A {\displaystyle V\geq 500LC_{50}}{\displaystyle LC_{50}\leq 200{\tfrac {mL}{m^{3}}}}.
I B {\displaystyle V\geq 10LC_{50}}{\displaystyle LC_{50}\leq 1000{\tfrac {mL}{m^{3}}}}
The criteria for Packing Group I. Hazard Zone A are not met.
II C {\displaystyle V\geq LC_{50}}{\displaystyle LC_{50}\leq 3000{\tfrac {mL}{m^{3}}}}
The criteria for Packing Group I, Hazard Zones A and B are not met.
III D {\displaystyle V\geq .2LC_{50}}{\displaystyle LC_{50}\leq 5000{\tfrac {mL}{m^{3}}}}
The criteria for Packing Groups I and II, Hazard Zones A, B and C are not met.
Note 1: V is the saturated vapor concentration in air of the material in {\displaystyle {\tfrac {mL}{m^{3}}}} at 20°C and standard atmospheric pressure.
Note 2: A liquid in Division 6.1 meeting criteria for Packing Group I, Hazard Zones A or B stated in paragraph (a)(2) of this section is a material poisonous by inhalation subject to the additional hazard communication requirements in 49CFR 172.203(m)(3), 49CFR 172.313 and Table 1 of 49CFR 172.504(e) of this subchapter.

3. When the packing group determined by applying these criteria is different for two or more (oral, dermal or inhalation) routes of administration, the packing group assigned to the material shall be that indicated for the highest degree of toxicity for any of the routes of administration.

4. Notwithstanding the provisions of this paragraph, the packing group and hazard zone of a tear gas substance is as assigned in Column 5 of the 49CFR 172.101 Table.

The packing group and hazard zone for Division 6.1 mixtures that are poisonous (toxic) by inhalation may be determined by one of the following methods:

Where {\displaystyle LC_{50}} data is available on each of the poisonous (toxic) substances comprising the mixture:
1. The {\displaystyle LC_{50}} of the mixture is estimated using the formula:
{\displaystyle LC_{50}(mixture)={\cfrac {1}{\textstyle \sum _{i=1}^{n}{\cfrac {f_{i}}{LC_{50i}}}}}}
  • where {\displaystyle f_{i}} = mole fraction of the {\displaystyle i^{th}} component of the liquid
  • {\displaystyle LC_{50i}} = means lethal concentration of the {\displaystyle i^{th}} component substance in {\displaystyle {\tfrac {mL}{m^{3}}}}
2. The volatility of each component substance is estimated using the formula:
{\displaystyle V_{i}=P_{i}\times {\tfrac {10^{6}}{101.3}}[{\tfrac {mL}{m^{3}}}]}
where: {\displaystyle P_{i}} = partial pressure of the {\displaystyle i^{th}} component substance in kPa at 20°C and one atmospheric pressure. {\displaystyle P_{i}} may be calculated according to Raoult’s Law using appropriate activity coefficients. Where activity coefficients are not available, the coefficient may be assumed to be 1.0.
3. The ratio of the volatility to the LC50 is calculated using the formula:
{\displaystyle R=\textstyle \sum _{i=1}^{n}{\tfrac {f_{i}}{LC_{50i}}}}
4. Using the calculated values LC50 (mixture) and R, the packing group for the mixture is determined as follows:
Packing Group Hazard Zone Ratio of Volatility and LC50
I A {\displaystyle R\geq 500} and {\displaystyle LC_{50}(mixture)\leq 200{\tfrac {mL}{m^{3}}}}
I B {\displaystyle R\geq 10} and {\displaystyle LC_{50}(mixture)\leq 1000{\tfrac {mL}{m^{3}}}}; and
The criteria for Packing Group I, Hazard Zone A, are not met.
II C {\displaystyle R\geq 1} and {\displaystyle LC_{50}(mixture)\leq 3000{\tfrac {mL}{m^{3}}}}; and
The criteria for Packing Group I, Hazard Zones A and B are not met.
III D {\displaystyle R\geq {\tfrac {1}{5}}} and {\displaystyle LC_{50}(mixture)\leq 5000{\tfrac {mL}{m^{3}}}}; and
The criteria for Packing Groups I, Hazard Zones A, B and Packing Group II.

In the absence of LC50 data on the poisonous (toxic) constituent substances, the mixture may be assigned a packing group and hazard zone based on simplified threshold toxicity tests. When these threshold tests are used, the most restrictive packing group and hazard zone must be determined and used for the transportation of the mixture.

 

HAZMAT CLASS 7 Radioactive substances are materials that emit radiation.

Any quantity of packages bearing the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW III label (LSA-III).

Some radioactive materials in “exclusive use” with low specific activity radioactive materials will not bear the label, however, the RADIOACTIVE placard is required.

Placards

Class 7: Radioactive Hazardous Materials
Class 7: Radioactive

Compatibility Table

Load and Segregation Chart
Weight 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 3 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2 6.1 7 8
A B A
7 – I N/A B
7 – II N/A B
7 – III Any Quantity B No No No O
Key
The absence of any hazard class or division or a blank space in the table indicates that no restrictions apply.

  • X: These materials may not be loaded, transported, or stored together in the same transport vehicle or storage facility during the course of transportation.
  • O: Indicates that these materials may not be loaded, transported or stored together in the same transport vehicle or storage facility during the course of transportation, unless separated in a manner that, in the event of leakage from packages under conditions normally incident to transportation, commingling of hazardous materials would not occur.
  • B: Radioactive I and II are not required to be placarded, and does not have segregation requirements. Radioactive III must be placarded in any quantity.
    • I – Extremely low radiation levels: 0.5 millirems (0.0050 mSv) per hour.
    • II – Low radiation levels: >0.5–50 millirems (0.0050–0.5000 mSv) per hour, on surface. 1.0 millirem (0.010 mSv) maximum at 3.3 feet (1 m).
    • III – Higher radiation levels: >50–200 millirems (0.50–2.00 mSv), on surface. 10 millirems (0.10 mSv) maximum at 3.3 feet (1 m).[1]

 

corrosive material is a liquid or solid that causes full thickness destruction of human skin at the site of contact within a specified period of time. A liquid that has a severe corrosion rate on steel or aluminum based on the criteria in 49CFR 173.137(c)(2) is also a corrosive material.

Divisions

454 kg (1001 lbs) or more gross weight of a corrosive material. Although the corrosive class includes both acids and bases, the hazardous materials load and segregation chart does not make any reference to the separation of various incompatible corrosive materials from each other. In spite of this, however, when shipping corrosives, care should be taken to ensure that incompatible corrosive materials can not become mixed, as many corrosives react very violently if mixed. If responding to a transportation incident involving corrosive materials (especially a mixture of corrosives), caution should be exercised.

Placards

Class 8: Corrosive Hazardous Materials
Class 8: Corrosive

Compatibility Table

Load and Segregation Chart
Weight 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 3 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2 6.1 7 8
A B A
8 1,001 lb (454 kg) No No No O No No O O No O O O No
Key
The absence of any hazard class or division or a blank space in the table indicates that no restrictions apply.

  • X: These materials may not be loaded, transported, or stored together in the same transport vehicle or storage facility during the course of transportation.
  • O: Indicates that these materials may not be loaded, transported or stored together in the same transport vehicle or storage facility during the course of transportation, unless separated in a manner that, in the event of leakage from packages under conditions normally incident to transportation, commingling of hazardous materials would not occur.

 

Class 8 Packing Groups
The packing group of Class 8 material is indicated in Column 5 of the 49CFR 172.101 Table. When the 49CFR 172.101 Table provides more than one packing group for a Class 8 material, the packing group must be determined using data obtained from tests conducted in accordance with the 1992 OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals, Number 404 “Acute Dermal Irritation/Corrosion” as follows:
Group Explanation
I Materials that cause full thickness destruction of intact skin tissue within an observation period of up to 60 minutes starting after the exposure time of three minutes or less.
II Materials other than those meeting Packing Group I criteria that cause full thickness destruction of intact skin tissue within an observation period of up to 14 days starting after the exposure time of more than three minutes but not more than 60 minutes.
III Materials, other than those meeting Packing Group I or II criteria:

  1. That cause full thickness destruction of intact skin tissue within an observation period of up to 14 days starting after the exposure time of more than 60 minutes but not more than 4 hours; or
  2. That do not cause full thickness destruction of intact skin tissue but exhibit a corrosion rate on steel or aluminum surfaces exceeding 6.25 mm (0.25 inch) a year at a test temperature of 55°C (130°F). For the purpose of testing steel P3 (ISO 9328-1) or a similar type, and for testing aluminum, non-clad types 7075-T6 or AZ5GU-T6 should be used. An acceptable test is described in ASTM G 31-72.

 

The miscellaneous hazardous material is a material that presents a hazard during transportation but which does not meet the definition of any other hazard class. This class includes:

  1. Any material which has an anesthetic, noxious or other similar property which could cause extreme annoyance or discomfort to a flight crew member so as to prevent the correct performance of assigned duties; or
  2. Any material that meets the definition in 49 CFR 171.8 for an elevated temperature material, a hazardous substance, a hazardous waste, or a marine pollutant.

Placards

Class 9: Miscellaneous Hazardous Materials
Class 9: Miscellaneous

Compatibility Table

Load and Segregation Chart
Weight 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 3 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2 6.1 7 8
A B A
9
Key
The absence of any hazard class or division or a blank space in the table indicates that no restrictions apply.

  • X: These materials may not be loaded, transported, or stored together in the same transport vehicle or storage facility during the course of transportation.
  • O: Indicates that these materials may not be loaded, transported or stored together in the same transport vehicle or storage facility during the course of transportation, unless separated in a manner that, in the event of leakage from packages under conditions normally incident to transportation, commingling of hazardous materials would not occur.

The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulates the handling of hazardous materials in the workplace as well as response to hazardous-materials-related incidents, most notably through Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER).[8] regulations found at 29 CFR 1910.120.
The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration regulates hazmat transportation within the territory of the US by Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations.Due to the increase in the threat of terrorism in the early 21st century after the September 11, 2001 attacks, funding for greater hazmat-handling capabilities was increased throughout the United States, recognizing that flammable, poisonous, explosive, or radioactive substances, in particular, could be used for terrorist attacks.

In 1984 the agencies OSHA, EPA, USCG, and NIOSH jointly published the first Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Guidance Manual[8] which is available for download.[9]

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates hazardous materials as they may impact the community and environment, including specific regulations for environmental cleanup and for handling and disposal of waste hazardous materials. For instance, transportation of hazardous materials is regulated by the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act was also passed to further protect human and environmental health.[10]

The Consumer Product Safety Commission regulates hazardous materials that may be used in products sold for household and other consumer uses.

Hazard classes for materials in transport

Following the UN model, the DOT divides regulated hazardous materials into nine classes, some of which are further subdivided. Hazardous materials in transportation must be placarded and have specified packaging and labelling. Some materials must always be placarded, others may only require placarding in certain circumstances.[11]

Trailers of goods in transport are usually marked with a four digit UN number. This number, along with standardized logs of hazmat information, can be referenced by first responders (firefighters, police officers, and ambulance personnel) who can find information about the material in the Emergency Response Guidebook.[12]

Fixed facilities

Different standards usually apply for handling and marking hazmats at fixed facilities, including NFPA 704 diamond markings (a consensus standard often adopted by local governmental jurisdictions), OSHA regulations requiring chemical safety information for employees, and CPSC requirements requiring informative labeling for the public, as well as wearing hazmat suits when handling hazardous materials.

Packing groups

Packing groups are used for the purpose of determining the degree of protective packaging required for dangerous goods during transportation.
  • Group I: great danger, and most protective packaging required. Some combinations of different classes of dangerous goods on the same vehicle or in the same container are forbidden if one of the goods is Group I.[13]
  • Group II: medium danger
  • Group III: minor danger among regulated goods, and least protective packaging within the transportation requirement

Transport documents

One of the transport regulations is that, assistance during emergency situations, written instructions how to deal in such need to be carried and easily accessible in the driver’s cabin.[14]

A license or permit card for hazmat training must be presented when requested by officials.

Dangerous goods shipments also require a special declaration form prepared by the shipper. Among the information that is generally required includes the shipper’s name and address; the consignee’s name and address; descriptions of each of the dangerous goods, along with their quantity, classification, and packaging; and emergency contact information.

Hazardous Materials Houston Truck Accident Lawyer

Seeking a Free Consultation with one of Texas’ Houston Truck Accident Lawyers? Call the Big Rig Bull Texas Truck Accident Lawyer Reshard Alexander today at 713.766.3322.

Houston Truck Accident & Injury Guide

Houston Type of Accident Truck Lawyer Links
Blind Spot
Construction Zone
Detached Trailer
Head-On Collision
Intersection Wreck
Interstate Wreck
Jackknife Wreck
Hazardous Materials
Loading Dock
Multi-Vehicle
Rear End Collision
Rollover Crash
Side Impact
Trailer Underride
Wide Turn Wreck

Hazardous Materials
Class 1 Explosives
Class 2 Gases
Class 3 Flammable Liquids
Class 4 Flammable Solids
Class 5 Oxidizing Substances and Organic Peroxides
Class 6 Toxic Substances
Class 6 Toxic Substances
Class 7 Radioactive Materials
Class 8 Corrosive Substances
Class 9 Miscellaneous

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